Bender White Papers

Take a deeper dive into Bender's industry solutions by reading through our white papers. Segmented by our most popular industries, our white papers have been written with the reader in mind. To download, complete the form on the right-hand side of the page to have our white papers sent directly to your inbox.

Today, energy storage systems (ESS) are an essential compontent of the integration of renewable energies and optimization of grid service systems. Power generation, as well as transmission and distribution networks, constitute an important infrastructure on whose operation housholds depend on. This white paper explores the following topics:

  • Potential in ESS system design
  • Fault and monitoring scenarios in a grounded system
  • Insulation monitoring in the grounded system

Unplanned outages due to electrical insulation degradation can result in considerable costs in industrial processes as well as create safety hazards. This paper discusses basic motor insulation and a few failure modes. The paper also discusses the application of online and offline-insulation monitoring and ground-fault detection devices while considering the different methods of grounding. Several applications are discussed to show benefits of insulation resistance monitoring and highlight some of the risks associated with not continuously monitoring insulation.


  • Introduction to the concept of continuous offline monitoring
  • The advantage of using a low voltage monitoring signal
  • Pulp and paper applications

This paper describes the IEC type A (AC only) ground-fault detection circuit and its imitations in accurately detecting electrical ground-fault currents in today’s modern electrical installations.


  • Limitations of UL1053 standard for ground-fault sensing and relaying equipment
  • The effects of waveform modifying power sources
  • RCD application on drives fed from resistance grounded distribution

Neutral-grounding resistors (NGR) for industrial power systems are often selected without consideration of the nature of the loads on the system.


  • Introduction to the harmonic issue
  • Limitations of current transformers
  • Limitation of ground-fault protection

Operating Rooms (ORs) account for approximately 67% of a hospital’s total revenue and 40% of hospital expenses (including wages). 


  • Risk evaluation of the basic isolated power system
  • The financial impact of a ground fault in an OR or ICU
  • Fault detection with remote communication

The governing bodies of healthcare facilities are often faced with making decisions regarding which type of power system should be built into their operating rooms. This study was conducted to explore the cost difference between isolated power and grounded power for operating rooms.


  • Cost differences of systems as calculated by an electrical contractor and reviewed by an engineer
  • Recommendations based on findings of the study for preferred system power method

This paper describes the Isolation Monitoring Interrupter (IMI) and its application in aviation.


  • Standards and regulations in aviation
  • How the IMI ensures electrical safety
  • The technology involved